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HUD Construction & Safety Standards
Excerpts for Homeowners
Data plate. Each manufactured home shall bear a data plate affixed in a permanent manner near the main electrical panel or other readily accessible and visible location. Each data plate shall be made of material what will receive typed information as well as preprinted information, and which can be cleaned of ordinary smudges or household dirt without removing information contained on the data plate; or the data plate shall be covered in a permanent manner with materials that will make it possible to clean the data plate of ordinary dirt and smudges without obscuring the information. Each data plate shall contain not less than the following information: (a) The name and address of the manufacturing plant in which the manufactured home was manufactured. (b) The serial number and model designation of the unit, and the date the unit was manufactured. (c) The statement: This manufactured home is designed to comply with the Federal Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards in force at the time of manufacture. (d) A list of the certification label(s) number(s) that are affixed to each transportable manufactured section under Sec. 3280.8. (e) A list of major factory-installed equipment, including the manufacturer's name and the model designation of each appliance. (f) Reference to the roof load zone and wind load zone for which the home is designed and duplicates of the maps as set forth in Sec. 3280.305(c). This information may be combined with the heating/cooling certificate and insulation zone map required by Sec. Sec. 3280.510 and 3280.511. The Wind Zone Map on the Data Plate shall also contain the statement: This home has not been designed for the higher wind pressures and anchoring provisions required for ocean/coastal areas and should not be located within 1500[foot] of the coastline in Wind Zones II and III, unless the home and its anchoring and foundation system have been designed for the increased requirements specified for Exposure D in ANSI/ASCE 7-88. (g) The statement: This home has--has not--(appropriate blank to be checked by manufacturer) been equipped with storm shutters or other protective coverings for windows and exterior door openings. For homes designed to be located in Wind Zones II and III, which have not been provided with shutters or equivalent covering devices, it is strongly recommended that the home be made ready to be equipped with these devices in accordance with the method recommended in the manufacturers printed instructions.
Serial number. (a) A manufactured home serial number which will identify the manufacturer and the state in which the manufactured home is manufactured, must be stamped into the foremost cross member. Letters and numbers must be \3/8\ inch minimum in height. Numbers must not be stamped into hitch assembly or drawbar.
Certification label. (a) A permanent label shall be affixed to each transportable section of each manufactured home for sale or lease in the United States. This label shall be separate and distinct from the data plate which the manufacturer is required to provide under Sec. 3280.5 of the standards. (b) The label shall be approximately 2 in. by 4 in. in size and shall be permanently attached to the manufactured home by means of 4 blind rivets, drive screws, or other means that render it difficult to remove without defacing it. It shall be etched on 0.32 in. thick aluminum plate. The label number shall be etched or stamped with a 3 letter designation which identifies the production inspection primary inspection agency and which the Secretary shall assign. Each label shall be marked with a 6 digit number which the label supplier shall furnish. The labels shall be stamped with numbers sequentially. (c) The label shall read as follows: As evidenced by this label No. ABC 000001, the manufacturer certifies to the best of the manufacturer's knowledge and belief that this manufactured home has been inspected in accordance with the requirements of the Department of Housing and Urban Development and is constructed in conformance with the Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards in effect on the date of manufacture. See date plate. (d) The label shall be located at the tail-light end of each transportable [[Page 113]] section of the manufactured home approximately one foot up from the floor and one foot in from the road side, or as near that location on a permanent part of the exterior of the manufactured home unit as practicable. The road side is the right side of the manufactured home when one views the manufactured home from the tow bar end of the manufactured home.
Light and ventilation. (a) Lighting. Each habitable room shall be provided with exterior windows and/or doors having a total glazed area of not less than 8 percent of the gross floor area. (1) Kitchens, bathrooms, toilet compartments, laundry areas, and utility rooms may be provided with artificial light in place of windows. (2) Rooms and areas may be combined for the purpose of providing the required natural lighting provided that at least one half of the common wall area is open and unobstructed, and the open area is at least equal to 10 percent of the combined floor area or 25 square feet whichever is greater. (b) Whole house ventilation. Each manufactured home shall be capable of providing a minimum of 0.35 air changes per hour continuously or at an equivalent hourly average rate. The following criteria shall be adhered to. (1) Natural infiltration and exfiltration shall be considered as providing 0.25 air changes per hour. (2) The remaining ventilation capacity of 0.10 air change per hour or its hourly average equivalent shall be calculated using 0.035 cubic feet per minute per square foot of interior floor space. This ventilation capacity shall be in addition to any openable window area. (3) The remaining ventilation capacity may be provided by: a mechanical system, or a passive system, or a combination passive and mechanical system. The ventilation system or provisions shall not create a positive pressure in Uo value Zones 2 and 3 or a negative pressure condition in Uo value Zone 1. Mechanical systems shall be balanced. Combination passive and mechanical systems shall have adequately sized inlets or exhaust to release any unbalanced pressure. Passive systems shall have inlets and exhaust of sufficient size to alleviate unbalance pressure conditions under normal conditions. Temporary imbalances due to gusting or high winds are permitted. (4) The ventilation system or provision shall exchange air directly with the exterior of the home, except it shall not draw or expel air with the space underneath the home. The ventilation system or provision shall not draw or expel air into the floor, wall, or ceiling/roof systems even if those systems are vented. (5) The ventilation system or a portion thereof may be integral with the homes heating or cooling system. The system shall be capable of operating independently of the heating or cooling [[Page 114]] modes. A ventilation system that is integral with the heating or cooling system shall be listed as part of the heating and cooling system or listed as suitable for use therewith. (6) A mechanical ventilation system, or mechanical portion thereof, shall be provided with a manual control and may be provided with automatic timers or humidistats. (7) Substantiation of the ventilation capacity to provide 0.10 ACH shall be provided for a mechanical system, or a passive system, or a combination passive and mechanical system. (c) Additional ventilation. (1) At least half of the minimum required glazed area in paragraph (a) of this section shall be openable directly to the outside of the manufactured home for unobstructed ventilation. These same ventilation requirements apply to rooms combined in accordance with Sec. 3280.103(a)(2). (2) Kitchens shall be provided with a mechanical ventilation system that is capable of exhausting 100 cfm to the outside of the home. The exhaust fan shall be located as close as possible to the range or cook top, but in no case farther than 10 feet horizontally from the range or cook top. (3) Each bathroom and separate toilet compartment shall be provided with a mechanical ventilation system capable of exhausting 50 cfm to the outside of the home. A separate toilet compartment may be provided with 1.5 square feet of openable glazed area in place of mechanical ventilation, except in Uo value Zone 3. [58 FR 55003, Oct. 25, 1993] Effective Date Note: At 70 FR 72042, Nov. 30, 2005, Sec. 3280.103 was amended by revising paragraph (b), effective May 30, 2006. For the convenience of the user, the revised text follows: Sec. 3280.103 Light and ventilation. * * * * * (b) Whole-house ventilation. Each manufactured home must be provided with whole-house ventilation having a minimum capacity of 0.035 ft\3\/ min/ft\2\ of interior floor space or its hourly average equivalent. This ventilation capacity must be in addition to any openable window area. In no case shall the installed ventilation capacity of the system be less than 50 cfm nor more than 90 cfm. The following criteria must be adhered to: (1) The ventilation capacity must be provided by a mechanical system or a combination passive and mechanical system. The ventilation system or provisions for ventilation must not create a positive pressure in Uo Value Zone 2 and Zone 3 or a negative pressure condition in Uo Value Zone 1. Mechanical systems must be balanced. Combination passive and mechanical systems must have adequately sized inlets or exhaust to release any unbalanced pressure. Temporary pressure imbalances due to gusting or high winds are permitted. (2) The ventilation system or provisions for ventilation must exchange air directly with the exterior of the home, except the ventilation system, or provisions for ventilation must not draw or expel air with the space underneath the home. The ventilation system or provisions for ventilation must not draw or expel air into the floor, wall, or ceiling/roof systems, even if those systems are vented. The ventilation system must be designed to ensure that outside air is distributed to all bedrooms and main living areas. The combined use of undercut doors or transom grills connecting those areas to the room where the mechanical system is located is deemed to meet this requirement. (3) The ventilation system or a portion of the system is permitted to be integral with the home's heating or cooling system. The system must be capable of operating independently of the heating or cooling modes. A ventilation system that is integral with the heating or cooling system is to be listed as part of the heating and cooling system or listed as suitable for use with that system. (4) A mechanical ventilation system, or mechanical portion thereof, must be provided with a manual control, and must be permitted to be provided with automatic timers or humidistats. (5) A whole-house ventilation label must be attached to the whole- house ventilation control, must be permanent, and must state: ``WHOLE- HOUSE VENTILATION''. (6) Instructions for correctly operating and maintaining whole-house ventilation systems must be included with the homeowner's manual. The instructions must encourage occupants to operate these systems whenever the home is occupied, and must refer to the labeled whole-house ventilation control.
Ceiling heights. (a) Every habitable room and bathroom shall have a minimum ceiling height of not less than 7 feet, 0 inches for a minimum of 50 percent of the room's floor area. The remaining area. may have a ceiling with a minimum height of 5 feet, 0 inches. Minimum height under dropped ducts, beams, etc. shall be 6 feet, 4 inches. (b) Hallways and foyers shall have a minimum ceiling height of 6 feet, 6 inches.
Exit facilities; exterior doors. (a) Number and location of exterior doors. Manufactured homes shall have a minimum of two exterior doors located remote from each other. (1) Required egress doors shall not be located in rooms where a lockable interior door must be used in order to exit. (2) In order for exit doors to be considered remote from each other, they must comply with all of the following: (i) Both of the required doors must not be in the same room or in a group of rooms which are not defined by fixed walls. (ii) Single wide units. Doors may not be less than 12 ft. c-c from each other as measured in any straight line direction regardless of the length of path of travel between doors. (iii) Double wide units. Doors may not be less than 20 ft. c-c from each other as measured in any straight line direction regardless of the length of path of travel between doors. (iv) One of the required exit doors must be accessible from the doorway of each bedroom without traveling more than 35 ft. (b) Door design and construction. (1) Exterior swinging doors shall be constructed in accordance with Sec. 3280.405 the ``Standard for Swinging Exterior Passage Doors for Use in Manufactured Homes''. Exterior sliding glass doors shall be constructed in accordance with Sec. 3280.403 the ``Standard for Windows and Sliding Glass Doors Used in Manufactured Homes''. (2) All exterior swinging doors shall provide a minimum 28 inch wide by 74 inch high clear opening. All exterior sliding glass doors shall provide a minimum 28 inch wide by 72 inch high clear opening. (3) Each swinging exterior door other than screen or storm doors shall have a key-operated lock that has a deadlocking latch or a key- operated dead bolt with a passage latch. Locks shall not require the use of a key for operation from the inside. (4) All exterior doors, including storm and screen doors, opening outward shall be provided with a safety door check.
Interior passage. (a) Interior doors having passage hardware without a privacy lock, or with a privacy lock not engaged, shall open from either side by a single movement of the hardware mechanism in any direction. (b) Each manufactured home interior door, when provided with a privacy lock, shall have a privacy lock that has an emergency release on the outside to permit entry when the lock has been locked by a locking knob, lever, button, or other locking device on the inside
Room requirements. (a) Every manufactured home shall have at least one living area with not less than 150 sq. ft. of gross floor area. (b) Rooms designed for sleeping purposes shall have a minimum gross square foot floor area as follows: (1) All bedrooms shall have at least 50 sq. ft. of floor area. (2) Bedrooms designed for two or more people shall have 70 sq. ft. of floor area plus 50 sq. ft. for each person in excess of two. (c) Every room designed for sleeping purposes shall have accessible clothes hanging space with a minimum inside depth of 22 inches and shall be equipped with a rod and shelf. [40 FR 58752, Dec. 18, 1975. Redesignated at 44 FR 20679, Apr. 6, 1979, and further redesignated at 58 FR 55004, Oct. 25, 1993]
Minimum room dimensions. The gross floor area required by Sec. 3280.110 (a) and (b) shall have no clear horizontal dimension less than 5 feet except as permitted by Sec. 3280.102(a). [40 FR 58752, Dec. 18, 1975. Redesignated at 44 FR 20679, Apr. 6, 1979, and further redesignated at 58 FR 55004, Oct. 25, 1993]
Toilet compartments. Each toilet compartment shall be a minimum of 30 inches in width, except, when the toilet is located adjacent to the short dimension of the tub, the distance from the tub to the center line of the toilet shall not be less than 12 inches. At least 21 inches of clear space shall be provided in front of each toilet. [40 FR 58752, Dec. 18, 1975. Redesignated at 44 FR 20679, Apr. 6, 1979, and further redesignated at 58 FR 55004, Oct. 25, 1993]
Glass and glazed openings. (a) Windows and sliding glass doors. All windows and sliding glass doors shall meet the requirements of Sec. 3280.403 the ``Standard for Windows and Sliding Glass Doors Used in Manufactured Homes''. (b) Safety glazing. Glazing in all entrance or exit doors, sliding glass doors, units (fixed or moving sections), unframed glass doors, unbacked mirrored wardrobe doors (i.e., mirrors not secured to a backing capable of being the door itself), shower and bathtub enclosures and surrounds to a height of 6 feet above the bathroom floor level, storm doors or combination doors, and in panels located within 12 inches on either side of exit or entrance doors shall be of a safety glazing material. Safety glazing material is considered to be any glazing material capable of passing the requirements of Safety Performance Specifications and Methods of Test for Safety Glazing Materials Used in Buildings, ANSI Z97.1-1984. [40 FR 58752, Dec. 18, 1975. Redesignated at 44 FR 20679, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 52 FR 4581, Feb. 12, 1987. Redesignated at 58 FR 55004, Oct. 25, 1993]
Fire Safety Sec. 3280.203 Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements. (a) Establishment of flame spread rating. The surface flame spread rating of interior-finish material shall not exceed the value shown in Sec. 3280.203(b) when tested by ``Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, ASTM E 84-91a'' except that the surface flame spread rating of interior-finish materials required by Sec. 3280.203(b)(5) and (6) may be determined by using the ``Standard Test Method for Surface Flammability. of Materials Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source, ASTM E 162-90''. However, the following materials need not be tested to establish their flame spread rating unless a lower rating is required by these standards. (1) Flame-spread rating--76 to 200. (i) .035-inch or thicker high pressure laminated plastic panel countertop; (ii) \1/4\-inch or thicker unfinished plywood with phenolic or urea glue; (iii) Unfinished dimension lumber (1-inch or thicker nominal boards); (iv) \3/8\-inch or thicker unfinished particleboard with phenolic or urea binder; (v) Natural gum-varnished or latex- or alkyd-painted: (A) \1/4\-inch or thicker plywood, or (B) \3/8\-inch or thicker particleboard, or (C) 1-inch or thicker nominal board; (vi) \5/16\-inch gypsum board with decorative wallpaper; and (vii) \1/4\-inch or thicker unfinished hardboard, (2) Flame-spread rating-25 to 200, (i) Painted metal; (ii) Mineral-base acoustic tile; (iii) \5/16\-inch or thicker unfinished gypsum wallboard (both latex- or alkyd-painted); and (iv) Ceramic tile. (The above-listed material applications do not waive the requirements of Sec. 3280.203(c) or Sec. 3280.204 of this subpart.) (b) Flame-spread rating requirements. (1) The interior finish of all walls, columns, and partitions shall not have a flame spread rating exceeding 200 except as otherwise specified herein. (2) Ceiling interior finish shall not have a flame spread rating exceeding 75. (3) Walls adjacent to or enclosing a furnace or water heater and ceilings above them shall have an interior finish with a flame spread rating not exceeding 25. Sealants and other trim materials 2 inches or less in width used to finish adjacent surfaces within these spaces are exempt from this provision provided that all joints are completely supported by framing members or by materials having a flame spread rating not exceeding 25. (4) Exposed interior finishes adjacent to the cooking range shall have a flame spread rating not exceeding 50, except that backsplashes not exceeding 6 inches in height are exempted. Adjacent surfaces are the exposed vertical surfaces between the range top height and the overhead cabinets and/or ceiling and within 6 horizontal inches of the cooking range. (Refer also to Sec. 3280.204(a), Kitchen Cabinet Protection.) Sealants and other trim materials 2 inches or less in width used to finish adjacent surfaces are exempt from this provision provided that all joints are completely supported by a framing member. (5) Kitchen cabinet doors, countertops, backsplashes, exposed bottoms, and end panels shall have a flame spread rating not to exceed 200. Cabinet rails, stiles, mullions, and top strips are exempted. (6) Finish surfaces of plastic bathtubs, shower units, and tub or shower doors shall not exceed a flame spread rating of 200. (c) Fire protective requirements. (1) Materials used to surface the following areas shall be of limited combustible material (e.g., \5/16\-inch gypsum board, etc.): (i) The exposed wall adjacent to the cooking range (see Sec. 3280.203(b)(4)); (ii) Exposed bottoms and sides of kitchen cabinets as required by Sec. 3280.204; (iii) Interior walls and ceilings enclosing furnace and/or water heater spaces; and (iv) Combustible doors which provide interior or exterior access to furnace and/or water heater spaces. The surface may be interrupted for louvers ventilating the enclosure. However, the louvers shall not be constructed of a material of greater combustibility than the door itself (e.g., plastic louvers on a wooden door). (2) No burner of a surface cooking unit shall be closer than 12 horizontal inches to a window or an exterior door with glazing. Effective Date Note: At 70 FR 72042, Nov. 30, 2005, Sec. 3280.203 was amended by revising paragraph (a) introductory text, effective May 30, 2006. For the convenience of the user, the revised text follows: Sec. 3280.203 Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements. (a) Establishment of flame spread rating. The surface flame spread rating of interior-finish material must not exceed the value shown in Sec. 3280.203(b) when tested by Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, ASTM E84-01, 2001, or Standard Method of Test of Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials NFPA 255, 1996, except that the surface flame spread rating of interior-finish materials required by Sec. 3280.203(b)(5) and (6) may be determined by using the Standard Test Method for Surface Flammability of Materials Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source, ASTM E 162-94. However, the following materials need not be tested to establish their flame spread rating unless a lower rating is required by the standards in this part:
Smoke alarm requirements. (a) Labeling. Each smoke alarm required under paragraph (b) of this section must conform with the requirements of UL 217, Single and Multiple Station Smoke Alarms, dated January 4, 1999 (incorporated by reference, see Sec. 3280.4), or UL 268, Smoke Detectors for Fire Protective Signaling Systems, dated January 4, 1999 (incorporated by reference, see Sec. 3280.4), and must bear a label to evidence conformance. (b) Required smoke alarm locations. (1) At least one smoke alarm must be installed in each of the following locations: (i) To protect both the living area and kitchen space. Manufacturers are encouraged to locate the alarm in the living area remote from the kitchen and cooking appliances. A smoke alarm located within 20 feet horizontally of a cooking appliance must incorporate a temporary silencing feature or be of a photoelectric type. (ii) In each room designed for sleeping. (iii) On the ceiling of the upper level near the top or above each stairway, other than a basement stairway, in any multistory home completed in accordance with this part or part 3282 of this chapter. The alarm must be located so that smoke rising in the stairway cannot be prevented from reaching the alarm by an intervening door or obstruction. (2) For each home designed to be placed over a basement, the manufacturer must provide a smoke alarm for the basement and must install at the factory an electrical junction box for the installation of this smoke alarm and for its interconnection to other smoke alarms required by this section. The instructions for installers and information for homeowners required in paragraph (f) of this section must clearly indicate that a smoke alarm should be installed and is to be located on the basement ceiling near the stairway. (3) A smoke alarm required under this section must not be placed in a location that impairs its effectiveness or in any of the following locations: (i) Within 3 feet horizontally from any discharge grille when a home is equipped or designed for future installation of a roof-mounted evaporative cooler or other equipment discharging conditioned air through a ceiling grille into the living space; and (ii) In any location or environment that is prohibited by the terms of its listing, except as permitted by this section. (c) Mounting requirements. (1) Except in rooms with peaked sloping or shed sloping ceilings with a slope of more than 1.5/12 or as permitted pursuant to paragraph (e) of this section, smoke alarms must be mounted either: (i) On the ceiling at least 4 inches from each wall; or (ii) On a wall with the top of the alarm not less than 4 inches below the ceiling, and not farther from the ceiling than 12 inches or the distance from the ceiling specified in the smoke alarm manufacturer's listing and instructions, whichever is less. (2) Except as permitted pursuant to paragraph (e) of this section, in rooms with peaked sloping ceilings with a slope of more than 1.5/12, smoke alarms must be mounted on the ceiling within 3 feet, measured horizontally, from the peak of the ceiling; at least 4 inches, measured vertically, below the peak of the ceiling; and at least 4 inches from any projecting structural element. (3) Except as permitted pursuant to paragraph (e) of this section, in rooms with shed sloping ceilings with a slope of more than 1.5/12, smoke alarms must be mounted on the ceiling within 3 feet, measured horizontally, of the high side of the ceiling, and not closer than 4 inches from any adjoining wall surface and from any projecting structural element. (d) Connection to power source. (1) Each smoke alarm must be powered from: (i) The electrical system of the home as the primary power source and a battery as a secondary power source; or (ii) A battery rated for a 10-year life, provided the smoke alarm is listed for use with a 10-year battery. (2) Each smoke alarm whose primary power source is the home electrical system must be mounted on an electrical outlet box and connected by a permanent wiring method to a general electrical circuit. More than one smoke alarm is permitted to be placed on the same electrical circuit. The wiring circuit for the alarm must not include any switches between the over-current protective device and the alarm, and must not be protected by a ground fault circuit interrupter. (3) Smoke alarms required under this section must be interconnected such that the activation of any one smoke alarm causes the alarm to be triggered in all required smoke alarms in the home. (e) Visible and tactile notification appliances. (1) In addition to the smoke alarms required pursuant to this section, the manufacturer must provide visible and listed tactile notification appliances if these appliances are ordered by the purchaser or retailer before the home enters the first stage of production. These appliances are required to operate from the primary power source, but are not required to operate from a secondary power source. (2) A visible notification appliance in a room designed for sleeping must have a minimum rating of 177 candela, except that when the visible notification appliance is wall-mounted or suspended more than 24 inches below the ceiling, a minimum rating of 110 candela is permitted. (3) A visible notification appliance in an area other than a room designed for sleeping must have a minimum rating of 15 candela. (f) Testing and maintenance. (1) Each required smoke alarm installed at the factory must be operationally tested, after conducting the dielectric test specified in Sec. 3280.810(a), in accordance with the alarm manufacturer's instructions. A smoke alarm that does not function as designed during the test and is not fixed so that it functions properly in the next retest must be replaced. Any replacement smoke alarm must be successfully tested in accordance with this paragraph. (2) Home manufacturers must provide specific written instructions for installers on how to inspect and test the operation of smoke alarms during installation of the home. These instructions must indicate that any smoke alarm that does not meet the inspection or testing requirements needs to be replaced and retested. (3) Home manufacturers must provide the homeowner with the alarm manufacturer's information describing the operation, method and frequency of testing, and proper maintenance of the smoke alarm. This information must be provided in same manner and location as the consumer manual required by Sec. 3282.207 of this chapter, but does not have to be incorporated into the consumer manual. No dealer, distributor, construction contractor, or other person shall interfere with the distribution of this information
Windstorm protection. (a) Provisions for support and anchoring systems. Each manufactured home shall have provisions for support/anchoring or foundation systems that, when properly designed and installed, will resist overturning and lateral movement (sliding) of the manufactured home as imposed by the respective design loads. For Wind Zone I, the design wind loads to be used for calculating resistance to overturning and lateral movement shall be the simultaneous application of the wind loads indicated in Sec. 3280.305(c)(1)(i), increased by a factor of 1.5. The 1.5 factor of safety for Wind Zone I is also to be applied simultaneously to both the vertical building projection, as horizontal wind load, and across the surface of the full roof structure, as uplift loading. For Wind Zones II and III, the resistance shall be determined by the simultaneous application of the horizontal drag and uplift wind loads, in accordance with Sec. 3280.305(c)(1)(ii). The basic allowable stresses of materials required to resist overturning and lateral movement shall not be increased in the design and proportioning of these members. No additional shape or location factors need to be applied in the design of the tiedown system. The dead load of the structure may be used to resist these wind loading effects in all Wind Zones. (1) The provisions of this section shall be followed and the support and anchoring systems shall be designed by a Registered Professional Engineer or Architect. (2) The manufacturer of each manufactured home is required to make provision for the support and anchoring systems but is not required to provide the anchoring equipment or stabilizing devices. When the manufacturer's installation instructions provide for the main frame structure to be used as the points for connection of diagonal ties, no specific connecting devices need be provided on the main frame structure. (b) Contents of instructions. (1) The manufacturer shall provide printed instructions with each manufactured home specifying the location and required capacity of stabilizing devices on which the design is based. The manufacturer shall provide drawings and specifications certified by a registered professional engineer or architect indicating at least one acceptable system of anchoring, including the details of required straps or cables, their end connections, and all other devices needed to transfer the wind loads from the manufactured home to an anchoring or foundation system. (2) For anchoring systems, the instructions shall indicate: (i) The minimum anchor capacity required; (ii) That anchors should be certified by a professional engineer, architect, or a nationally recognized testing laboratory as to their resistance, based on the maximum angle of diagonal tie and/or vertical tie loading (see paragraph (c)(3) of this section) and angle of anchor installation, and type of soil in which the anchor is to be installed; (iii) That ground anchors should be embedded below the frost line and be at least 12 inches above the water table; and (iv) That ground anchors should be installed to their full depth, and stabilizer plates should be installed to provide added resistance to overturning or sliding forces. (v) That anchoring equipment should be certified by a registered professional engineer or architect to resist these specified forces in accordance with testing procedures in ASTM Standard Specification D3953- 91, Standard Specification for Strapping, Flat Steel and Seals. (c) Design criteria. The provisions made for anchoring systems shall be based on the following design criteria for manufactured homes. (1) The minimum number of ties provided per side of each home shall resist design wind loads required in Sec. 3280.305(c)(1). (2) Ties shall be as evenly spaced as practicable along the length of the manufactured home, with not more than two (2) feet open-end spacing on each end. (3) Vertical ties or straps shall be positioned at studs. Where a vertical tie and a diagonal tie are located at the same place, both ties may be connected to a single anchor, provided that the anchor used is capable of carrying both loadings, simultaneously. (4) Add-on sections of expandable manufactured homes shall have provisions for vertical ties at the exposed ends. (d) Requirements for ties. Manufactured homes in Wind Zone I require only diagonal ties. These ties shall be placed along the main frame and below the outer side walls. All manufactured homes designed to be located in Wind Zones II and III shall have a vertical tie installed at each diagonal tie location. (e) Protection requirements. Protection shall be provided at sharp corners where the anchoring system requires the use of external straps or cables. Protection shall also be provided to minimize damage to siding by the cable or strap. (f) Anchoring equipment--load resistance. Anchoring equipment shall be capable of resisting an allowable working load equal to or exceeding 3,150 pounds and shall be capable of withstanding a 50 percent overload (4,725 pounds total) without failure of either the anchoring equipment or the attachment point on the manufactured home. (g) Anchoring equipment--weatherization. Anchoring equipment exposed to weathering shall have a resistance to weather deterioration at least equivalent to that provided by a coating of zinc on steel of not less than 0.30 ounces per square foot of surface coated, and in accordance with the following: (1) Slit or cut edges of zinc-coated steel strapping do not need to be zinc coated. (2) Type 1, Finish B, Grade 1 steel strapping, 1-1/4 inches wide and 0.035 inches in thickness, certified by a registered professional engineer or architect as conforming with ASTM Standard Specification D3953-91, Standard Specification for Strapping, Flat Steel, and Seals. [40 FR 58752, Dec. 18, 1975. Redesignated at 44 FR 20679, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 52 FR 4583, Feb. 12, 1987; 59 FR 2473, Jan. 14, 1994] Effective Date Note: At 70 FR 72045, Nov. 30, 2005, Sec. 3280.306 was amended by revising paragraph (b)(1), effective May 30, 2006. For the convenience of the user the revised text follows: Sec. 3280.306 Windstorm protection. (b) Contents of instructions. (1) The manufacturer must provide printed instructions with each manufactured home that specify the location and required capacity of stabilizing devices on which the home's design is based. The manufacturer must identify by paint, label, decal stencil, or other means: the location of each column support pier location required along the marriage line(s) of multi-section manufactured homes; each pier location required along the perimeter of the home; each required shear wall pier support; and any other special pier support locations specified in the manufacturer's printed instructions. Such identifications must be visible after the home is installed. The manufacturer must provide drawings and specifications, certified by a registered professional engineer or architect, that indicate at least one acceptable system of anchoring, including the details or required straps or cables, their end connections, and all other devices needed to transfer the wind loads from the manufactured home to an anchoring or foundation system.
Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products. (a) Formaldehyde emission levels. All plywood and particleboard materials bonded with a resin system or coated with a surface finish containing formaldehyde shall not exceed the following formaldehyde emission levels when installed in manufactured homes: (1) Plywood materials shall not emit formaldehyde in excess of 0.2 parts per million (ppm) as measured by the air chamber test method specified in Sec. 3280.406. (2) Particleboard materials shall not emit formaldehyde in excess of 0.3 ppm as measured by the air chamber test specified in Sec. 3280.406. (b) Product certification and continuing qualification. All plywood and particleboard materials to be installed in manufactured homes which are bonded with a resin system or coated with a surface finish containing formaldehyde, other than an exclusively phenol-formaldehyde resin system or finish, shall be certified by a nationally recognized testing laboratory as complying with paragraph (a) of this section. (1) Separate certification shall be done for each plant where the particleboard is produced or where the plywood or particleboard is surface-finished. (2) To certify plywood or particleboard, the testing laboratory shall witness or conduct the air chamber test specified in Sec. 3280.406 on randomly selected panels initially and at least quarterly thereafter. (3) The testing laboratory must approve a written quality control plan for each plant where the particleboard is produced or finished or where the plywood is finished. The quality control plan must be designed to assure that all panels comply with paragraph (a) of this section. The plan must establish ongoing procedures to identify increases in the formaldehyde emission characteristics of the finished product resulting from the following changes in production. (i) In the case of plywood: (A) The facility where the unfinished panels are produced is changed; (B) The thickness of the panels is changed so that the panels are thinner; or (C) The grooving pattern on the panels is changed so that the grooves are deeper or closer together. (ii) In the case of particleboard: (A) The resin formulation is changed so that the formaldehyde-to- urea ratio is increased; (B) The amount of formaldehyde resin used is increased; or (C) The press time is decreased. (iii) In the case of plywood or particleboard: (A) The finishing or top coat is changed and the new finishing or top coat has a greater formaldehyde content; or (B) The amount of finishing or top coat used on the panels is increased, provided that such finishing or top coat contains formaldehyde. (4) The testing laboratory shall periodically visit the plant to monitor quality control procedures to assure that all certified panels meet the standard. (5) To maintain its certification, plywood or particleboard must be tested by the air chamber test specified in Sec. 3280.406 whenever one of the following events occurs: (i) In the case of particleboard, the resin formulation is changed so that the formaldehyde-to-urea ratio is increased; or (ii) In the case of particleboard or plywood, the finishing or top coat is changed and the new finishing or top coat contains formaldehyde; or (iii) In the case of particleboard or plywood, the testing laboratory determines that an air chamber test is necessary to assure that panels comply with paragraph (a) of this section. (6) In the event that an air chamber test measures levels of formaldehyde from plywood or particleboard in excess of those permitted under paragraph (a) of this section, then the tested product's certification immediately lapses as of the date of production of the tested panels. No panel produced on the same date as the tested panels or on any day thereafter may be used or certified for use in manufactured homes. (i) Provided, however, that a new product certification may be obtained by testing randomly selected panels which were produced on any day following the date of production of the tested panels. If such panels pass the air chamber test specified in Sec. 3280.406, then the plywood or particleboard produced on that day and subsequent days may be used and certified for use in manufactured homes. (ii) Provided further, that plywood or particleboard produced on the same day as the tested panels, and panels produced on subsequent days, if not certified pursuant to paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section, may be used in manufactured homes only under the following circumstances: (A) Each panel is treated with a scavenger, sealant, or other means of reducing formaldehyde emissions which does not adversely affect the structural quality of the product; and (B) Panels randomly selected from the treated panels are tested by and pass the air chamber test specified in Sec. 3280.406. (c) Panel identification. Each plywood and particleboard panel to be installed in manufactured homes which is bonded or coated with a resin system containing formaldehyde, other than an exclusively phenol- formaldehyde resin system, shall be stamped or labeled so as to identify the product manufacturer, date of production and/or lot number, and the testing laboratory certifying compliance with this section. (d) Treatment after certification. If certified plywood or particleboard subsequently is treated with paint, varnish, or any other substance containing formaldehyde, then the certification is no longer valid. In such a case, each stamp or label placed on the panels pursuant to paragraph (c) of this section must be obliterated. In addition, the treated panels may be recertified and reidentified in accordance with paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section.
Plumbing fixtures. (a) General requirements--(1) Quality of fixtures. Plumbing fixtures shall have smooth impervious surfaces, be free from defects and concealed fouling surfaces, be capable of resisting road shock and vibration, and shall conform in quality and design to listed standards. Fixtures shall be permanently marked with the manufacturer's name or trademark. (2) Strainers. The waste outlet of all plumbing fixtures, other than toilets, shall be equipped with a drain fitting that will provide an adequate unobstructed waterway. (3) Fixture connections. Fixture tailpieces and continuous wastes in exposed or accessible locations shall be not less than No. 20 Brown and Sharpe gage seamless drawn-brass tubing or other approved pipe or tubing materials. Inaccessible fixture connections shall be constructed according to the requirements for drainage piping. Each fixture tailpiece, continuous waste, or waste and overflow shall be not less than 1\1/2\ inches for sinks of two or more compartments, dishwashers, clothes washing machines, laundry tubs, bath tubs, and not less than 1\1/4\ inches for lavatories and single compartment sinks having a 2 inch maximum drain opening. (4) Concealed connections. Concealed slip joint connections shall be provided with adequately sized unobstructed access panels and shall be accessible for inspection and repair. (5) Directional fitting. An approved or listed ``Y'' or other directional-type branch fitting shall be installed in every tailpiece or continuous waste that receives the discharge from food waste disposal units, dishwashing, or other force-discharge fixture or appliance. (See also Sec. 3280.607(b)(4)(ii).) (b) Fixtures--(1) Spacing. All plumbing fixtures shall be so installed with regard to spacing as to be reasonably accessible for their intended use. (2) Water closets. (i) Water closets shall be designed and manufactured according to approved or listed standards and shall be equipped with a water flushing device capable of adequately flushing and cleaning the bowl at each operation of the flushing mechanism. (ii) Water closet flushing devices shall be designed to replace the water seal in the bowl after each operation. Flush valves, flushometer valves, flushometer tanks and ballcocks shall operate automatically to shut off at the end of each flush or when the tank is filled to operating capacity. (iii) Flush tanks shall be fitted with an overflow pipe large enough to prevent flooding at the maximum flow rate of the ball cock. Overflow pipes shall discharge into the toilet, through the tank. (iv) Water closets that have fouling surfaces that are not thoroughly washed at each discharge shall be prohibited. Any water closet that might permit the contents of the bowl to be siphoned back into the water system shall be prohibited. (v) Floor connection. Water closets shall be securely bolted to an approved flange or other approved fitting which is secured to the floor by means of corrosion-resistant screws. The bolts shall be of solid brass or other corrosion-resistant material and shall be not less than one-fourth inch in diameter. A watertight seal shall be made between the water closet and flange or other approved fitting by use of a gasket or sealing compound. (3) Shower compartment. (i) Each compartment stall shall be provided with an approved watertight receptor with sides and back extending at least 1 inch above the finished dam or threshold. In no case shall the depth of a shower receptor be less than 2 inches or more than 9 inches measured from the top of the finished dam or threshold to the top of the drain. The wall area shall be constructed of smooth, noncorrosive, and nonabsorbent waterproof materials to a height not less than 6 feet above the bathroom floor level. Such walls shall form a watertight joint with each other and with the bathtub, receptor or shower floor. The floor of the compartment shall slope uniformly to the drain at not less than one- fourth nor more than one-half inch per foot. (ii) The joint around the drain connection shall be made watertight by a flange, clamping ring, or other approved listed means. (iii) Shower doors and tub and shower enclosures shall be constructed so as to be waterproof and, if glazed, glazing shall comply with the standard for Safety Performance Specifications and Methods of Test for Safety Glazing Materials Used in Buildings, ANSI Z97.1-1984. (iv) Prefabricated plumbing fixtures shall be approved or listed. (4) Dishwashing machines. (i) A dishwashing machine shall not be directly connected to any waste piping, but shall discharge its waste through a fixed air gap installed above the machine, or through a high loop as specified by the dishwashing machine manufacturer, or into an open standpipe-receptor with a height greater than the washing compartment of the machine. When a standpipe is used, it shall be at least 18 inches but not more than 30 inches above the trap weir. The drain connections from the air gap or high loop may connect to an individual trap, to a directional fitting installed in the sink tailpiece or to an opening provided on the inlet side of a food waste disposal unit. (ii) Drain from a dishwashing machine shall not be connected to a sink tailpiece, continuous waste line, or trap on the discharge side of a food waste disposal unit. (5) Clothes washing machines. (i) Clothes washing machines shall drain either into a properly vented trap, into a laundry tub tailpiece with watertight connections, into an open standpipe receptor, or over the rim of a laundry tub. (ii) Standpipes shall be 1\1/2\ inches minimum nominal iron pipe size, 1\1/2\ inches diameter nominal brass tubing not less than No. 20 Brown and Sharpe gage, or 1\1/2\ inches approved plastic materials. Receptors shall discharge into a vented trap or shall be connected to a laundry tub tailpiece by means of an approved or listed directional fitting. Each standpipe shall extend not less than 18 inches or more than 30 inches above its trap and shall terminate in an accessible location no lower than the top of clothes washing machine. A removable tight fitting cap or plug shall be installed on the standpipe when clothes washer is not provided. (iii) Clothes washing machine drain shall not be connected to the tailpiece, continuous waste, or trap of any sink or dishwashing machine. (c) Installation--(1) Access. Each plumbing fixture and standpipe receptor shall be located and installed in a manner to be accessible for usage, cleaning, repair and replacement. Access to diverter valves and other connections from the fixture hardware is not required. (2) Alignment. Fixtures shall be set level and in true alignment with adjacent walls. Where practical, piping from fixtures shall extend to nearest wall. (3) Brackets. Wall-hung fixtures shall be rigidly attached to walls by metal brackets or supports without any strain being transmitted to the piping connections. Flush tanks shall be securely fastened to toilets or to the wall with corrosive-resistant materials. (4) Tub supports. Bathtub rims at wall shall be supported on metal hangers or on end-grain wood blocking attached to the wall unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer of the tub. (5) Fixture fittings. Faucets and diverters shall be installed so that the flow of hot water from the fittings corresponds to the left- hand side of the fitting. (6) Whirlpool bathtub appliances--(i) Access panel. A door or panel of sufficient size shall be installed to provide access to the pump for repair and/or replacement. (ii) Piping drainage. The circulation pump shall be accessibly located above the crown weir of the trap. The pump drain line shall be properly sloped to drain the volute after fixture use. (iii) Piping. Whirlpool bathtub circulation piping shall be installed to be self-draining. (iv) Electrical. Refer to the National Electrical Code, NFPA 70- 1993, Article 685G. [40 FR 58752, Dec. 18, 1975, as amended at 42 FR 961, Jan. 4, 1977. Redesignated at 44 FR 20679, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 52 FR 4586, Feb. 12, 1987; 58 FR 55014, Oct. 25, 1993] Effective Date Note: At 70 FR 72049, Nov. 30, 2005, Sec. 3280.607 was amended by adding new paragraph (a)(6), redesignating paragraphs (b)(2)(iii) through (v) as paragraphs (b)(2)(iv) through (vi), respectively, adding new paragraph (b)(2)(iii), and revising paragraph (c)(6)(iv), effective May 30, 2006. For the convenience of the user the revised and added text follows:
Minimum standards. Heating, cooling and fuel burning appliances and systems in manufactured homes shall be free of defects, and shall conform to applicable standards in the following table unless otherwise specified in this standard. (See Sec. 3280.4) When more than one standard is referenced, compliance with any one such standard shall meet the requirements of this standard. Appliances Central Cooling Air Conditioners--UL 465-Seventh Edition-1987 With Revisions through December 24, 1987. Liquid Fuel-Burning Heating Appliances for Manufactured Homes and Recreational Vehicle--UL 307A-Sixth Edition-1990, With Revisions through August 21, 1990. Electrical Air Heaters-UL 1025-Second Edition-1987 With Revisions July 13, 1989, February 6, 1990 and December 3, 1991. Electric Baseboard Heating Equipment--UL 1042-Third Edition-1987 With Revision July 15, 1993. Electric Central Air Heating Equipment--UL 1096-Fourth Edition-1986 With Revisions July 16, 1986 and January 30, 1988. Gas Burning Heating Appliances for Mobile Homes and Recreational Vehicles--UL 307B-First Edition-1982 With Revision May 18, 1987. Gas Clothes Dryers Vol. 1, Type 1 Clothes Dryers--ANSI Z21.5.1-1992. Gas Fired Absorption Summer Air Conditioning Appliances--ANSI Z21.40.1- 1981, With Addenda Z21.40.1a-1982. Gas-Fired Central Furnaces [Except Direct Vent System Central Furnaces]--ANSI Z21.47-1990, With Addendum Z21.47a-1990 and Z21.47b- 1992. Household Cooking Gas Appliances ANSI Z21.1-1990 With Addenda Z21.1a- 1991 and Z211b-1993. Refrigerators Using Gas Fuel--ANSI Z21.19-1990, With Addenda Z21.19a- 1992. Gas Water Heaters Vol. 1, Storage Water Heaters With Input Ratings of 75,000 BTU per hour or Less--ANSI Z21.10.1-1990, With Addendum Z21.10.1a-1991 and Z21.10.1b-1992. Household Electric Storage Tank Water Heaters--UL 174-Seventh Edition- 1989 With Revisions May 8, 1990 and January 22, 1991. Ferrous Pipe and Fittings Standard Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc- Coated, Welded and Seamless--ASTM A53-93. Standard Specification for Electric-Resistance-Welded Coiled Steel Tubing for Gas and Fuel Oil Lines--*ASTM A539-90a. Pipe Threads, General Purpose (Inch)--ANSI/ASME B1.20.1-1983. Welding and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe--ANSI/ASME B36.10-1979. Nonferrous Pipe, Tubing and Fittings Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Water Tube--ASTM B88-93. Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Tube for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Field Service--ASTM B280-93. Metal Connectors for Gas Appliances--ANSI Z21.24-1987, With Addena Z21.24a 1990 and Z21.24b-1992. Manually Operated Gas Valves for Appliances, Appliance Connector Valves and Hose End Valves--ANSI Z21.15-1992. Standard for Gas Supply Connectors for Manufactured Homes--IAPMO TSC 9- 92. Standard Specification for General Requirements for Wrought Seamless Copper and Copper-Alloy Tubes--ASTM B251-93. Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Pipe, Standard Sizes--ASTM B42-93. Direct Vent Central Furnaces--ANSI Z21.64-1990, With Addenda Z21.64a- 1992. Miscellaneous Factory-Made Air Ducts and Connectors--UL 181-Seventh Edition-1990, With Revision November 20, 1990. Tube Fittings for Flammable and Combustible Fluids, Refrigeration Service, and Marine Use--UL 109-Fifth Edition-1993. Pigtails and Flexible Hose Connectors for LP-Gas--UL 569-Sixth Edition- 1990. Roof Jacks for Manufactured Homes and Recreational Vehicles--UL 311- Seventh Edition-1990. Relief Valves and Automatic Gas Shutoff Devices for Hot Water Supply Systems--ANSI Z21.22-1986, With Addenda Z21.22a-1990. Automatic Gas Ignition Systems and Components--ANSI Z21.20-1989, With Addendum Z21.20a-1991 and Z21.20b-1992. Automatic Valves for Gas Appliances--ANSI Z21.21-1987, With Addendum Z21.21a-1989 and Z21.21b-1992. Gas Appliance Thermostats--ANSI Z21.23-1989, With Addenda Z21.23a-1991. Gas Vents--UL 441-Seventh Edition-1991. Installation of Oil-Burning Equipment, NFPA 31-1992 Edition. Standard for the Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases, 1992 Edition--NFPA-58. Flares for Tubing (1972)--SAE-J533b. Chimneys, Factory-Built Residential Type and Building Heating Appliance--UL 103-Seventh Edition--1989 With Revision February 23, 1989. Factory-Built Fireplaces--UL 127-Sixth Edition With Revisions January 4, 1989, June 10, 1991, June 29, 1992. Room Heaters Solid-Fuel Type--UL 1482--Third Edition--1988 With Revision September 13, 1988. Fireplace Stoves--UL 737--Sixth Edition--1988 With Revisions September 19, 1988, July 10, 1990 and June 10, 1991. Unitary Air-Conditioning and Air-Source Heat Pump Equipment--ANSI/ARI 210/240-89. AGA Requirements for Gas Connectors for Connection of Fixed Appliances for Outdoor Installation, Park Trailers and Manufactured (Mobile) Homes to the Gas Supply--No. 3-87. Effective Date Note: At 70 FR 72049, Nov. 30, 2005, Sec. 3280.703 was amended by revising the table following the introductory text, effective May 30, 2006. For the convenience of the user the revised text follows:
Power supply. (a) The power supply to the manufactured home shall be a feeder assembly consisting of not more than one listed 50 ampere manufactured home power-supply cords, or a permanently installed circuit. A manufactured home that is factory-equipped with gas or oil-fired central heating equipment and cooking appliances shall be permitted to be provided with a listed manufactured home power-supply cord rated 40 amperes. (b) If the manufactured home has a power-supply cord, it shall be permanently attached to the distribution panelboard or to a junction box permanently connected to the distribution panelboard, with the free end terminating in an attachment plug cap. (c) Cords with adapters and pigtail ends, extension cords, and similar items shall not be attached to, or shipped with, a manufactured home. (d) A listed clamp or the equivalent shall be provided at the distribution panelboard knockout to afford strain relief for the cord to prevent strain from being transmitted to the terminals when the power- supply cord is handled in its intended manner. (e) The cord shall be of an approved type with four conductors, one of which shall be identified by a continuous green color or a continuous green color with one or more yellow stripes for use as the grounding conductor. (f) The attachment plug cap shall be a 3-pole, 4-wire grounding type, rated 50 amperes, 125/250 volts with a configuration as shown herein and intended for use with the 50-ampere, 125/250 receptacle configuration shown. It shall be molded of butyl rubber, neoprene, or other approved materials which have been found suitable for the purpose, and shall be molded to the flexible cord so that it adheres tightly to the cord at the point where the cord enters the attachment-plug cap. If a right- angle cap is used, the configuration shall be so oriented that the grounding member is farthest from the cord. (g) The overall length of a power-supply cord, measured from the end of the cord, including bared leads, to the face of the attachment-plug cap shall not be less than 21 feet and shall not exceed 36\1/2\ feet. The length of cord from the face of the attachment-plug cap to the point where the cord enters the manufactured home shall not be less than 20 feet. 50-ampere 125/250 volt receptacle and attachment-plug-cap configurations, 3 pole, 4-wire grounding types used for manufactured home supply cords and manufactured home parks. Complete details of the 50-ampere cap and receptacle can be found in the American National Standard Dimensions of Caps, Plugs and Receptacles, Grounding Type (ANSI C73.17--1972). (h) The power supply cord shall bear the following marking: ``For use with manufactured homes--40 amperes'' or ``For use with manufactured homes--50 amperes.'' (i) Where the cord passes through walls or floors, it shall be protected by means of conduit and bushings or equivalent. The cord may be installed within the manufactured home walls, provided a continuous raceway is installed from the branch-circuit panelboard to the underside of the manufactured home floor. The raceway may be rigid conduit, electrical metallic tubing or polyethylene (PE), poly-vinylchloride (PVC) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) plastic tubing having a minimum wall thickness of nominal \1/8\ inch. (j) Permanent provisions shall be made for the protection of the attachment-plug cap of the power supply cord and any connector cord assembly or receptacle against corrosion and mechanical damage if such devices are in an exterior location while the manufactured home is in transit. (k) Where the calculated load exceeds 50 amperes or where a permanent feeder is used, the supply shall be by means of: (1) One mast weatherhead installation installed in accordance with Article 230 of the National Electrical Code NFPA No. 70-1993 containing four continuous insulated, color-coded, feeder conductors, one of which shall be an equipment grounding conductor; or (2) An approved raceway from the disconnecting means in the manufactured home to the underside of the manufactured home with provisions for the attachment of a suitable junction box or fitting to the raceway on the underside of the manufactured home. The manufacturer shall provide in his written installation instructions, the proper feeder conductor sizes for the raceway and the size of the junction box to be used; or (3) Service equipment installed on the manufactured home in accordance with Article 230 of the National Electrical Code NFPA No. 70- 1993; and (i) The installation shall be completed by the manufacturer except for the service connections, the meter and the grounding electrode conductor; (ii) Exterior equipment, or the enclosure in which it is installed shall be weatherproof and installed in accordance with Article 373-2 of the National Electrical Code NFPA No. 70-1993. Conductors shall be suitable for use in wet locations; (iii) The neutral conductor shall be connected to the system grounding conductor on the supply side of the main disconnect in accordance with Articles 250-23, 25, and 53 of NFPA No. 70-1993. (iv) The manufacturer shall include in its written installation instructions one method of grounding the service equipment at the installation site; (v) The minimum size grounding electrode conductor shall be specified in the instructions; and (vi) A red ``Warning'' label shall be mounted on or adjacent to the service equipment. The label shall state: ``Warning--do not provide electrical power until the grounding electrode is installed and connected (see installation instructions).'' [40 FR 58752, Dec. 18, 1975. Redesignated at 44 FR 20679, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 52 FR 4589, Feb. 12, 1987; 58 FR 55019, Oct. 25, 1993] Effective Date Note: At 70 FR 72051, Nov. 30, 2005, Sec. 3280.803 was amended by redesignating the receptacle/cap illustration and caption that follows paragraph (g) to the end of paragraph (f), and revising the redesignated caption following the redesignated illustration, paragraph (k)(1), the introductory text of paragraph (k)(3), and paragraphs